Immigration is the worldwide movement of individuals to a destination country where they are neither native or citizens in order to settle themselves as permanent residents or naturalized citizens. Emigration is also a closely related term. It refers to movement out of a country. Emigrants are person who leave their native country for new homes elsewhere. They are referred to be immigrants after they arrive in their new country.
People have tended to immigrate largely in modern times in search of better social, economic and political opportunities.
CATEGORIES OF IMMIGRANTS:
After a specific number of years as a permanent resident (for example, 7 to 8 years in Germany, 3 to 5 years in the United States, and one year in Australia), immigrants can seek to naturalise and gain the rights and responsibilities of citizenship in their chosen nation. Some nations, such as the United States and Mexico, allow their people to keep their birth citizenship even if they obtain citizenship in another country, whereas others, such as China, prohibit dual citizenship.
Permanent residents are legal residents of their new nation and are not really citizens. In most situations, permanent residence, whether obtained by job, family relationships, or another means, is required before applying for citizenship. Even though this status does not expire, many people who possess it never complete the citizenship process. In the United States, they are referred to as lawful permanent residents or green-card holders (although the card wasn’t even green for many years).
Refugees and asylees are distinct and separate in that they were forced to emigrate because they could not depend on their government’s protection. However. Not everyone who migrates involuntary qualify as a refugee or asylum seeker. To obtain one of these legal statuses, a migrant must prove that he or she has been persecuted or has a well-founded fear of persecution because of race, religion, ethnicity, political convictions, or membership in a certain social group. Refugees usually gain this legal status while in a nation other than their home country (known as a place of first asylum), and only a small fraction are later resettled abroad. Asylees get legal status by petitioning for it after arriving in the nation where they decide to stay.
Twilight or liminal legal “statuses” usually shield to protect otherwise unregistered immigrants from deportation and continue to work for a specified duration provided they satisfy particular conditions, such as being in the country since a certain date and holding no more than a minor criminal record. Those possessing Twilight Status in the United States include participants of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) and Temporary Protected Status (TPS). Asylum seekers who are entitled to work while their requests are being processed may also be included.
Unauthorized immigrants, also defined as irregular, undocumented, illegal, or underground immigrants, are individuals who are unlawfully present in a nation, whether they entered the country illegally or overstayed a visa. While some undocumented immigrants travel for brief periods of time, some migrate with their families or form families in their new countries and stay permanently. Irregular migrants in the United States may have access to essential services like school and emergency hospital treatment, but they do not have the perks of residence or citizenship.
MOST COMMON DOCUMENTS FOR US IMMIGRATION:
- BIRTH CERTIFICATE: Document containing date and place of birth. Certificate must contain details of parents.
- COURT AND PRISON RECORDS: Court and prison act as a character certificate.
- PASSPORT: Passport provided by authorized agency of home country.
- DOCUMENTS DEPICTING FINANCIAL STABILITY: Documents to prove financial stability.
- MEDICAL CERTIFICATE: Documents to prove physical fitness for immigration.
And the other documents required documents for US immigration depend upon the visa applied.
TYPES OF US VISAS:
TOURIST OR BUSINESS VISA:
- B-1 FOR BUSINESS ASSOCIATES
- B-2 FOR PLEASURE OR MEDICAL TREATMENT.
IN ORDER TO WORK IN THE U.S. ON A TEMPORARY BASIS
- H1-B FOR SPECIALTY OCCUPATION (at least a bachelor’s degree in specific speciality)
- H-1 B-1 WORK VISA ON A TEMPORARY BASIS (already have a job offer)
- H-2B FOR SKILLED AND UNSKILLED WORKERS (temporary or seasonal job not eligible for Indian visa.)
- H-3 FOR TRAINEES (for period of 2 years)
- H-4 FOR DEPENDENT
- L-1 FOR INTRA COMPANY TRANFEES
- L-2 FOR DEPENDANTS
- TYPE O VISA (visa offered to those with extraordinary ability in science, education, arts, business and athletics).
- TYPE P VISA (visa offered to athletes, entertainer’s artist and essential support personnel to perform in US)
- TYPE Q VISA (travelling to participate international cultural exchange program in the U.S.)
- F-1 VISA (visa provided to those engage in academics studies in U.S. approved schools or in approved English program).
- M-1 VISA (visa offered to those planning non-academic, vocational training or training on U.S.)
EXCHANGE VISITOR VISA
- J VISA
SHIP CREW OR TRANSIT VISA
- TRANSIT C VISA: (offered to citizen of a foreign country travelling to another country via the U.S.)
- CREW D VISA: (offered to crew member serving on a sea level or aircraft).
RELIGIOUS WORKER VISA:
- R TYPE